Since early days of computing, the most slowest interconnects have always been between platforms through input and output channels. The movement from Serial ports to higher speed communications channels such as TCP/IP became the standard mechanism for applications to not only communicate between physical systems, but also on the same system! During Solaris 10 development, a capability to increase the performance of the TCP/IP stack with application on the same server was introduced called TCP_FUSION. Some application vendors may be unaware of safeguards built into Solaris 10 to keep denial of service attacks or starvation of the applications due to the high performance of TCP writers on the loopback interface.
Authors Brendan Gregg and Jim Mauro describe the functionality of TCP_FUSION in their book: DTrace: Dynamic Tracing in Oracle Solaris, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD.
Loopback TCP packets on Solaris may be processed by tcp fusion, a performance feature that bypasses the ip layer. These are packets over a fused fused connection, which will not be visible using the ip:::send and ip:::receive probes, (but they can be seen using the tcp:::send and tcp:::receive probes.) When TCP fusion is enabled (which it is by default), loopback connections become fused after a TCP handshake, and then all data packets take a shorter code path that bypasses the IP layer.The modern application hosted under Solaris will demonstrate a significant benefit over being hosted under alternative operating systems.
TCP socket performance, under languages such as Java, may demonstrate a significant performance improvement, often shocking software developers!
While comparing java TCP socket performance between RH Linux and Solaris, one of my test is done by using a java client sending strings and reading the replies from a java echo server. I measure the time spent to send and receive the data (i.e. the loop back round trip).The answer seems clear, TCP_FUSION is the primary reason.
The test is run 100,000 times (more occurrence are giving similar results). From my tests Solaris is 25/30% faster on average than RH Linux, on the same computer with default system and network settings, same JVM arguments (if any) etc.
In Solaris that's called "TCP Fusion" which means two local TCP endpoints will be "fused". Thus they will bypass the TCP data path entirely.Testing will confirm this odd performance benefit under stock Solaris under Linux.
Nice! I've used the commandOnce people understand the benefits of TCP_FUSION, they will seldom go back.
echo 'do_tcp_fusion/W 0' | mdb -kw
and manage to reproduce times close to what I've experienced on RH Linux. I switched back to re-enable it using
echo 'do_tcp_fusion/W 1' | mdb -kw
Thanks both for your help.
The default nature of TCP_FUSION means any application hosted under Solaris 10 or above will, by default, receive the benefit of this huge performance boost. Some early releases of Solaris 10 without patches may experience a condition where a crash can occur, because of kernel memory usage. The situation, workaround, and resolution is described:
Disabling TCP_FUSION feature is no longer needed for DoS protections.
Solaris 10 systems may panic in the tcp_fuse_rcv_drain() TCP/IP function when using TCP loopback connections, where both ends of the connection are on the same system. This may allow a local unprivileged user to cause a Denial of Service (DoS) condition on the affected host.To work around the described issue until patches can be installed, disable TCP Fusion by adding the following line to the "/etc/system" file and rebooting the system: set ip:do_tcp_fusion = 0x0.This issue is addressed in the following releases: SPARC Platform Solaris 10 with patch 118833-23 or later and x86 Platform Solaris 10 with patch 118855-19 or later.
If an application running under Solaris does not experience a performance boost, but rather a performance degradation, it is possible your ISV is not completely understand TCP_FUSION or the symptoms of an odd code implementation. When developers expect the receiving application on a socket to respond slowly, this can result in bad behavior with TCP sockets accelerated by Solaris.
Instead of application developers optimizing the behavior of their receiving application to take advantage of 25%-30% potential performance benefit, some of those applications vendors chose to suggest disabling TCP_FUSION with their applications: Riverbed's Stingray Traffic Manager and Veritas NetBackup (4x slowdown.) Those unoptimized TCP reading applications, which perform reads 8x slower than their TCP writing application counterparts, perform extremely poorly in the TCP_FUSION environment.
There is a better way to debug this issue rather than shutting off the beneficial behavior. Blogger Steffen Weiberle at Oracle wrote pretty extensively on this.
First, one may want to understand if it is being used. TCP_FUSION is often used, but not always:
There are some exceptions to this, including when using IPsec, IPQoS, raw-socket, kernel SSL, non-simple TCP/IP conditions. or the two end points are on different squeues. A fused connect will revert to unfused if an IP Filter rule will drop a packet. However TCP fusion is done in the general case.When TCP_FUSION is enabled for an application, there is a risk that the TCP data provider can provide data so fast over TCP that it can cause starvation of the receiving application! Solaris OS developers anticipated this in their acceleration design.
With TCP fusion enabled (which it is by default in Solaris 10 6/06 and later, and in OpenSolaris), when a TCP connection is created between processes on a system, the necessary things are set up to transfer data from the sender to the receiver without sending it down and back up the stack. The typical flow control of filling a send buffer (defaults to 48K or the value of tcp_xmit_hiwat, unless changed via a socket operation) still applies. With TCP Fusion on, there is a second check, which is the number of writes to the socket without a read. The reason for the counter is to allow the receiver to get CPU cycles, since the sender and receiver are on the same system and may be sharing one or more CPUs. The default value of this counter is eight (8), as determined by tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min.Some ISV developers may have coded their applications in such a way to anticipate that TCP is slow and coded their receiving application to be less efficient than the sending application. If the receiving application is 8x slower in servicing the reading from the TCP socket, the OS will slow down the provider. Some vendors call this a "bug" in the OS.
When doing large writes, or when the receiver is actively reading, the buffer flow control dominates. However, when doing smaller writes, it is easy for the sender to end up with a condition where the number of consecutive writes without a read is exceeded, and the writer blocks, or if using non-blocking I/O, will get an EAGAIN error.So now, one may see the symptoms: errors with TCP applications where connections on the same system are experiencing slowdowns and may even provide EAGAIN errors.
If the TCP reading application is known to be 8x slower than the TCP writing application, one option is to increase the threshold that the TCP writer becomes blocked, so maybe 32x as many writes can be issued [to a single read] before the OS performs a block on the writer, from a safety perspective. Steffen Weiberle also suggested:
To test this I suggested the customer change the tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min on their running system using mdb(1). I suggested they increase the counter by a factor of four (4), just to be safe.
# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 32" | mdb -kw tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 0x8 = 0x20Here is how you check what the current value is.
# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 32After running several hours of tests, the EAGAIN error did not return.
If the reading application is just poorly written and will never keep up with the writing application, another option is to remove the write-to-read protection entirely. Steffen Weiberle wrote:
Since then I have suggested they set tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min to 0, to turn the check off completely. This will allow the buffer size and total outstanding write data volume to determine whether the sender is blocked, as it is for remote connections. Since the mdb is only good until the next reboot, I suggested the customer change the setting in /etc/system.
There is a buffer safety tunable, where the writing application will block if the kernel buffer fills, so you will not crash Solaris if you turn this write-to-read ratio safety switch off.\* Set TCP fusion to allow unlimited outstanding writes up to the TCP send buffer set by default or the application. \* The default value is 8. set ip:tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min=0
This is the proverbial hammer on inserting a tack into a cork board. Steffen Weiberle wrote:
To turn TCP Fusion off all together, something I have not tested with, the variable do_tcp_fusion can be set from its default 1 to 0.Network Management has not investigated what the changes were in the final releases of OpenSolaris or more recent Solaris 11 releases from Oracle in regards to TCP_FUSION tuning.
And I would like to note that in OpenSolaris only the do_tcp_fusion setting is available. With the delivery of CR 6826274, the consecutive write counting has been removed.
The assumption of Network Management is that the common systems administrator is working with well-designed applications, where the application reader is keeping up with the application writer, under Solaris 10. If there are ill-behaved applications under Solaris 10, but one is interested in maintaining the 25%-30% performance improvement, some of the earlier tuning suggestions below will provide much better help than the typical ISV suggested final step.
Check for TCP_FUSION - 0=off, 1=on (default)
SUN9999/root# echo "do_tcp_fusion/D" | mdb -k
Check for TCP_FUSION unread to written ratio - 0=off, 8=default
Quadruple the TCP_FUSION unread to write ratio and check the results:SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 8
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 32" | mdb -kw tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 0x8 = 0x20
Disable the unread to write ratio and check the results:SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 32
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 0" | mdb -kw
Finally, disable TCP_FUSION to lose all performance benefits of Solaris, but keep your ISV happy.SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min: 0
SUN9999/root# echo "do_tcp_fusion/W 0" | mdb -kwMay this be helpful for Solaris 10 platform administrators, especially with Network Management platforms!