Wednesday, June 11, 2014

Security: Google Linux/Android and Apple iOS News

2014-06-05 - They’re ba-ack: Browser-sniffing ghosts return to haunt Chrome, IE, Firefox
Privacy threat that allows websites to know what sites you've viewed is revived.
Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Firefox are vulnerable to easy-to-execute techniques that allow unscrupulous websites to construct detailed histories of sites visitors have previously viewed, an attack that revives a long-standing privacy threat many people thought was fixed.

Now, a graduate student at Hasselt University in Belgium said he has confirmed that Chrome, IE, and Firefox users are once again susceptible to browsing-history sniffing. Borrowing from a browser-timing attack disclosed last year by fellow researcher Paul Stone, student AƤron Thijs was able to develop code that forced all three browsers to divulge browsing history contents.
Thoughts: If you think you are safe surfing for pornography, illegal music, or illegal software on a Windows PC or Linux Android device - think again. Your activities may be getting recorded, even if you are using "private browsing" features.

2014-05-13 - Malware authors target Android phones
Researchers report the number of malicious apps available on the Google Play store continues to grow. Your best defense is a security app, a cautious approach to downloads, and a close eye on your bank and credit card statements.
Thoughts: Android malware, affects not only phones, but also tablets. Malware is increasingly targeting individual devices through legitimate Google application stores. If you are an Android user, avoid applications which sound "too good to be true" or not advocated by major media, educational, or trade journal sources.

2014-06-06 - “WARNING Your phone is locked!” Crypto ransomware makes its debut on Android
The rapid evolution of cryptoware that extorts hefty payments continues.
Security researchers have documented another first in the annals of Android malware: a trojan that encrypts photos, videos, and documents stored on a device and demands a ransom for them to be restored.
The malware also addresses users in Russian and demands that payments be made in Ukrainian hryvnias, an indication that it targets only people in Eastern Europe. Still, the trojan—with its combination of social engineering, strong encryption, and robust Internet architecture—could be a harbinger of more serious and widespread threats to come. After all, the first Android trojans to make hefty SMS charges also debuted in the same region.
Thoughts: Unlike other hacker attempts to lock and unlock phones, insecurities in the Linux/Android operating system actually allow the malware to encrypt your content (photos, documents, books, etc.) and thus possibly lose all of your data!

2014-06-09 - iOS 8 to stymie trackers and marketers with MAC address randomization
When searching for Wi-Fi networks, iOS8 devices can hide their true identities. ...if iOS 8 devices broadcast their Wi-Fi probe requests under constantly shifting unique MAC addresses, tracking devices across stores or other venues by MAC address becomes impossible.
A new security mechanism is being included in Apple mobile devices, to provide additional levels of privacy and security to users. While the article writer contemplates the reason for the security change, Network Management wonders whether Apple may be running out of allocated MAC Addresses with devices for the sheer number of iOS mobile devices that they have released or are planning on releasing!

2014-05-21 - Did hackers just breach Apple’s iCloud?
ValueWalk notes that the pair of hackers worked for five months to breach Apple’s iCloud system. The site also says that it tracked down a Twitter account that may be linked to the Doulci hacker group, highlighting a tweet in which an alleged hacker claims to have “processed” more than 5,700 Apple devices in just five minutes using the hack.
Thoughts: A very unusual attack to compromise a security system so thieves can profit on selling stolen phones! This did not appear to affect anyone negatively, unless your phone was already stolen, reducing the chance of prosecuting the thief or reducing the change of having the stolen phone returned. Individual accounts appear to have been targeted - the Apple iCloud and content on supported phones/tablets appears to have remained secure/uncompromised.

2014-05-27 - Hackers can digitally hijack your iPhone and hold it for ransom
A number of iPhone, iPad and Mac owners in Western and Southern Australia awoke Tuesday morning to find that their devices had been locked using Apple’s Find My iPhone, Find My iPad and Find My Mac Features.

These features were designed to allow users to remotely locate Apple devices that have been lost or stolen, and they also allow users to lock their lost devices and display a message to aid in their recovery.
Thoughts: While not strictly a iOS phone hack, hacking a hardware provider on Internet or a personal account on the internet which is connected to personal devices can apparently provide a way to inconvenience you. Apple protects user content (photos, documents, passwords, etc.) making it more difficult to be compromised under Apple platforms than competing platforms like PC's or Linux/Android. Be careful what passwords you choose to use on the internet. Contact Apple if you suspect something like this has occurred and receive a prompt resolution.

 2014-06-10 - Russian Interior Ministry cuffs iPhone ransomware suspects
'Oleg Pliss', nemesis of Australian iThing owners, may be in bracelets. Russia's Interior Ministry has announced the arrest of two chaps suspected of conducting ransomware attacks on iPhones.

The Ministry's statement on the arrests describes a modus operandi that sounds an awful lot like that employed by “Oleg Pliss”, an entity that last month remotely locked iThings in Australia. Apple later recommended owners of iThings and iCloud accounts reset their passwords.

The statement alleges the suspects' attacks started with phishing, which validates Apple's insistence that its iCloud service was not compromised
Thoughts: People can pretty much be certain that the Apple security of their iCloud appears to have been secure, even if individual user accounts and passwords were hacked. Always be careful when using passwords on the internet.

Sunday, May 25, 2014

Solaris: Loopback Optimization and TCP_FUSION

Since early days of computing, the most slowest interconnects have always been between platforms through input and output channels. The movement from Serial ports to higher speed communications channels such as TCP/IP became the standard mechanism for applications to not only communicate between physical systems, but also on the same system! During Solaris 10 development, a capability to increase the performance of the TCP/IP stack with application on the same server was introduced called TCP_FUSION. Some application vendors may be unaware of safeguards built into Solaris 10 to keep denial of service attacks or starvation of the applications due to the high performance of TCP writers on the loopback interface.
Authors Brendan Gregg and Jim Mauro describe the functionality of TCP_FUSION in their book: DTrace: Dynamic Tracing in Oracle Solaris, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD.
Loopback TCP packets on Solaris may be processed by tcp fusion, a performance feature that bypasses the ip layer. These are packets over a fused fused connection, which will not be visible using the ip:::send and ip:::receive probes, (but they can be seen using the tcp:::send and tcp:::receive probes.) When TCP fusion is enabled (which it is by default), loopback connections become fused after a TCP handshake, and then all data packets take a shorter code path that bypasses the IP layer.
The modern application hosted under Solaris will demonstrate a significant benefit over being hosted under alternative operating systems.

Demonstrated Benefits:
TCP socket performance, under languages such as Java, may demonstrate a significant performance improvement, often shocking software developers!
While comparing java TCP socket performance between RH Linux and Solaris, one of my test is done by using a java client sending strings and reading the replies from a java echo server. I measure the time spent to send and receive the data (i.e. the loop back round trip).
The test is run 100,000 times (more occurrence are giving similar results). From my tests Solaris is 25/30% faster on average than RH Linux, on the same computer with default system and network settings, same JVM arguments (if any) etc.
The answer seems clear, TCP_FUSION is the primary reason.
In Solaris that's called "TCP Fusion" which means two local TCP endpoints will be "fused". Thus they will bypass the TCP data path entirely. 
Testing will confirm this odd performance benefit under stock Solaris under Linux.
Nice! I've used the command
echo 'do_tcp_fusion/W 0' | mdb -kw

and manage to reproduce times close to what I've experienced on RH Linux. I switched back to re-enable it using
echo 'do_tcp_fusion/W 1' | mdb -kw

Thanks both for your help.
Once people understand the benefits of TCP_FUSION, they will seldom go back.

Old Issues:
The default nature of TCP_FUSION means any application hosted under Solaris 10 or above will, by default, receive the benefit of this huge performance boost. Some early releases of Solaris 10 without patches may experience a condition where a crash can occur, because of kernel memory usage. The situation, workaround, and resolution is described:

Solaris 10 systems may panic in the tcp_fuse_rcv_drain() TCP/IP function when using TCP loopback connections, where both ends of the connection are on the same system. This may allow a local unprivileged user to cause a Denial of Service (DoS) condition on the affected host.
To work around the described issue until patches can be installed, disable TCP Fusion by adding the following line to the "/etc/system" file and rebooting the system: set ip:do_tcp_fusion = 0x0.
This issue is addressed in the following releases: SPARC Platform Solaris 10 with patch 118833-23 or later and x86 Platform Solaris 10 with patch 118855-19 or later.
Disabling TCP_FUSION feature is no longer needed for DoS protections.

Odd Application Behavior:
If an application running under Solaris does not experience a performance boost, but rather a performance degradation, it is possible your ISV is not completely understand TCP_FUSION or the symptoms of an odd code implementation. When developers expect the receiving application on a socket to respond slowly, this can result in bad behavior with TCP sockets accelerated by Solaris.

Instead of application developers optimizing the behavior of their receiving application to take advantage of 25%-30% potential performance benefit, some of those applications vendors chose to suggest disabling TCP_FUSION with their applications: Riverbed's Stingray Traffic Manager and Veritas NetBackup (4x slowdown.) Those unoptimized TCP reading applications, which perform reads 8x slower than their TCP writing application counterparts, perform extremely poorly in the TCP_FUSION environment.

Possible bad TCP_FUSION interaction?
There is a better way to debug this issue rather than shutting off the beneficial behavior. Blogger Steffen Weiberle at Oracle wrote pretty extensively on this.

First, one may want to understand if it is being used. TCP_FUSION is often used, but not always:
There are some exceptions to this, including when using IPsec, IPQoS, raw-socket, kernel SSL, non-simple TCP/IP conditions. or the two end points are on different squeues. A fused connect will revert to unfused if an IP Filter rule will drop a packet. However TCP fusion is done in the general case.
When TCP_FUSION is enabled for an application, there is a risk that the TCP data provider can provide data so fast over TCP that it can cause starvation of the receiving application! Solaris OS developers anticipated this in their acceleration design.
With TCP fusion enabled (which it is by default in Solaris 10 6/06 and later, and in OpenSolaris), when a TCP connection is created between processes on a system, the necessary things are set up to transfer data from the sender to the receiver without sending it down and back up the stack. The typical flow control of filling a send buffer (defaults to 48K or the value of tcp_xmit_hiwat, unless changed via a socket operation) still applies. With TCP Fusion on, there is a second check, which is the number of writes to the socket without a read. The reason for the counter is to allow the receiver to get CPU cycles, since the sender and receiver are on the same system and may be sharing one or more CPUs. The default value of this counter is eight (8), as determined by tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min.
Some ISV developers may have coded their applications in such a way to anticipate that TCP is slow and coded their receiving application to be less efficient than the sending application. If the receiving application is 8x slower in servicing the reading from the TCP socket, the OS will slow down the provider. Some vendors call this a "bug" in the OS.

When doing large writes, or when the receiver is actively reading, the buffer flow control dominates. However, when doing smaller writes, it is easy for the sender to end up with a condition where the number of consecutive writes without a read is exceeded, and the writer blocks, or if using non-blocking I/O, will get an EAGAIN error.
So now, one may see the symptoms: errors with TCP applications where connections on the same system are experiencing slowdowns and may even provide EAGAIN errors.

Tuning Option: Increase Slow Reader Tolerance
If the TCP reading application is known to be 8x slower than the TCP writing application, one option is to increase the threshold that the TCP writer becomes blocked, so maybe 32x as many writes can be issued [to a single read] before the OS performs a block on the writer, from a safety perspective. Steffen Weiberle also suggested:
To test this I suggested the customer change the tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min on their running system using mdb(1). I suggested they increase the counter by a factor of four (4), just to be safe.
# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 32" | mdb -kw
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      0x8            =       0x20

Here is how you check what the current value is.
# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      32

After running several hours of tests, the EAGAIN error did not return.
Tuning Option: Removing Slow Reader Protections
If the reading application is just poorly written and will never keep up with the writing application, another option is to remove the write-to-read protection entirely. Steffen Weiberle wrote:
Since then I have suggested they set tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min to 0, to turn the check off completely. This will allow the buffer size and total outstanding write data volume to determine whether the sender is blocked, as it is for remote connections. Since the mdb is only good until the next reboot, I suggested the customer change the setting in /etc/system.
\* Set TCP fusion to allow unlimited outstanding writes up to the TCP send buffer set by default or the application.
\* The default value is 8.
set ip:tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min=0
There is a buffer safety tunable, where the writing application will block if the kernel buffer fills, so you will not crash Solaris if you turn this write-to-read ratio safety switch off.

Tuning Option: Disabling TCP_FUSION
This is the proverbial hammer on inserting a tack into a cork board. Steffen Weiberle wrote:
To turn TCP Fusion off all together, something I have not tested with, the variable do_tcp_fusion can be set from its default 1 to 0.
And I would like to note that in OpenSolaris only the do_tcp_fusion setting is available. With the delivery of CR 6826274, the consecutive write counting has been removed.
Network Management has not investigated what the changes were in the final releases of OpenSolaris or more recent  Solaris 11 releases from Oracle in regards to TCP_FUSION tuning.
Tuning Guidelines:
The assumption of Network Management is that the common systems administrator is working with well-designed applications, where the application reader is keeping up with the application writer, under Solaris 10. If there are ill-behaved applications under Solaris 10, but one is interested in maintaining the 25%-30% performance improvement, some of the earlier tuning suggestions below will provide much better help than the typical ISV suggested final step.

Check for TCP_FUSION - 0=off, 1=on (default)
SUN9999/root#   echo "do_tcp_fusion/D" | mdb -k
do_tcp_fusion: 1

Check for TCP_FUSION unread to written ratio - 0=off, 8=default
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      8   
Quadruple the TCP_FUSION unread to write ratio and check the results:
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 32" | mdb -kw
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      0x8            =       0x20
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      32
Disable the unread to write ratio and check the results:
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/W 0" | mdb -kw
SUN9999/root# echo "tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min/D" | mdb -k
tcp_fusion_rcv_unread_min:      0
Finally, disable TCP_FUSION to lose all performance benefits of Solaris, but keep your ISV happy.
SUN9999/root# echo "do_tcp_fusion/W 0" | mdb -kw
May this be helpful for Solaris 10 platform administrators, especially with Network Management platforms!

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Oracle Solaris 11.2 Release

Oracle Solaris 11.2 Release Event
Oracle had released the 2nd revision to the Oracle 11 Operating System. During the release event, various people from the Oracle Team had spoken with overviews, with deep-dives for more technical information. Notes followed the deep-dive sessions.

Video Events
The individual video events are all available at a SINGLE SITE, the individual videos could not be embedded into the blog due to a bug in the way Oracle presented the EMBED video tag.

Oracle Solaris 11.2 - Engineered for the Cloud: Mark Hurd [Video] - Mark Hurd: President, Oracle

 Oracle Solaris 11.2 - Engineering for the Cloud: John Fowler [Video] - John Fowler: Executive Vice President Systems, Oracle

 Oracle Solaris 11.2 - Engineering for the Cloud: Panel  
[Video] - Customer Panel
Panel Members:
  • Bryon Ackerman: VP Internet Systems, Wells Fargo
  • Greg Lavender: CTO, Cloud Architecture & Infrastructure Engineering
  • Citi; Krishna Tangirala: Director of Infrastructure, B&H Photo and Video
    Oracle Solaris Lifecycle Management
    [Video] - Eric Saxe: Senior Manager Software Development, Oracle
    Key take-away point: Flash Archive to Unified Archive
    1. Solaris 10 has Flash Archive while Solaris 11 has Unified Archive 
    2. Unified Archive is Foundational 
    3. Completely portable on same CPU architecture
    4. native support for virtualization & zones (p2v, v2p, v2v, etc.) 
    Use Cases for Unified Archive
    1. Cloning & Golden Image from Physical Platform to LDom to Zones and back 
    2. Disaster Recovery 
    3. Delivering Vendor & Customer 
    Applications Management Features Include:
    1. OpenStack: Glance serves Unified Archive images into the cloud
    2. Oracle Enterprise OpsCenter is Fully integrated and free for Premier Support 
      Oracle 11.2: Virtualization and SDN
       [Video] - Markus Flierl, VP Solaris Development
      Operating Platform, Comprehensive Solution
      1. Full Operating System
      2. Full Virtualizaation
      3. Full OpenStack
      Zones enhanced with Kernel Zones
      1. 26% overhead for 4x Linux on VMWare
      2. ~1% overhead for 4x Solaris Zones
      Cost Reduction from Intel / Linux
      1. 68% reduced expenditures under Intel
      2. 74% reduced expenditures under SPARC
      Discussion about Unified Archive
      1. Encrypted Package & Delivery
      2. Compliance Checks
      3. Oracle Application Packaging
      4. Customer Packaging
      Kernel Zones
      1. Benefit of Licensing
      2. Live Resource Rebalancing
      Software Defined Networking (SDN) Virtuzalization
      1. Bundled into Solaris
      2. Optimized for Fabric Hardware Offloading
      3. Tunnel over Generic or Old Fabric
      4. VXLAN and Distributed Virtual Switch
      5. Fully Integrated into OpenStack
      Application Driven SDN
      1. Application can get it's own virtual network
      2. Resources allocated on network via distributed virtual network
      3. Priority can be provided to individual applications
      4. Java 8 will make SDN fully accessible
      Other Features:
      1. High Availability is Fully Integrated
      2. Enterprise Manager Ops Center fully integrated
      3. OpenStack - Unified, Industry Cross-Platform, Zone and Kernel Zone
        Oracle Solaris OpenStack
        [Video] - Eric Saxe: Senior Manager Software Development, Oracle
        Problems and Solutions in Datacenter
        • Several Weeks to Months normally needed to deploy systems
        • Cloud offers deployment acceleration from weeks to minutes
        • Manage data center as a single system
        • Better H-A and Data Redundancy
        • Python Based Open Source Cloud Infrastructure
        • Provides: IaaS, PaaS, SaaS
        • Self-Service web-based cloud portal
        • Compute infrastructure in minutes
        • Provides REST API's to build programmatic expansions
        OpenStack Core Services
        • Horizon - Web Based Portal
        • Nova - Virtual Machine lifecycle provisioning
          Install, Start, Migrate, etc
        • Cynder - Manage and Provision Block Storage for VM Instances
        • Neutron - Manage and Provision Networking Service, Virtual Network
        • Keystone - Offers identity and authentication for users, admins, and internal services
        • Swift - Provides Object Storage Service
        End User and Community Support
        • Joined OpenStack Foundation
        • Supported in Solaris
        • Capabilities to be Contributed Upstream
        Solaris Contributions to OpenStack
        • Solaris is trusted in Enterprise
        • Solaris scales for large workloads
        • Solaris offers gigabytes to terabytes of physical memory
        • Solaris offers unsurpassed data integrity
        • Solaris is secure by design
        • Solaris offers industry leading observability and compliance
        • Solaris features such as zones and kernel zones
        • Solaris capabilities to include software defined networking
        • Solaris OS imaging and templating technologies
        Oracle Solaris: Optimized for Database, Java and Applications  
        [Video] - Markus Flierl, VP Solaris Development
        Optimizations for Oracle Database and Java Integrated Directly into Core Solaris 11.2
        • Virtualization
        • Software Defined Networking
        • OpenStack
        Optimizations Plan:
        • Engineered Together
        • Tested Together
        • Certified Together
        • Deployed Together
        • Upgraded Together
        • Managed Together
        • Supported Together
        Pre-optimized Bundles through Unified Archives Interesting Notes:
        • Over half of SPARC SuperCluster customers are retiring non-Solaris platforms or new
        • SPARC SuperCluster growth rate over 100% year over year
        • Infiniband for optimal network performance
        • Storage built for Oracle Database
        • 26% performance gain with 4x VM's (vs Intel/RedHat/VM) 
        • Dramatic increase in performance from T3 to  T4 and T5
        Solaris 11.2 with Oracle 12c Enhancements
        • Oracle 12c Offloading RAC locking into Solaris Kernel
          (Higher Throughput, Reduced Latency)
        • 65% less $/tpm with SPARC T5-2 Solaris (vs Inte/RedHat/VM)
        • Optimize Database with 32 TB SGA startup from 40 minutes to 2 minutes
        • New Solaris Shared Memory interface to resize SGA with no downtime
        • Software Defined Network optimized and provided to Oracle 12c
        • DTrace instrumentation for I/O events in Oracle 12c
        • Oracle 12c v$kernel_io_outlier
         Solaris 11.2 with Java Enhancements
        • Solaris 11 Massive JVM improvement from T4, T5 / Java 7 to T5 / Java 8 over Intel
        • Automatic Large Page Support
        • Locking Infrastructure
        • Zero Percent Virtualization
        • Java Mission Control for DTrace visualization
         Future SPARC Improvements
        • Database Query Acceleration
        • Java Acceleration
        • Application Data Protection
        • Data Compression and Decompression
        Unified Archive Benefit to Applications in:
        • Physical Hardware
        • Zones
        • LDom/OracleVM
        • Customer can Leverage
        Oracle was first and best customer using Oracle SuperCluster
        The Economics of Oracle Solaris: Lower Your Costs
        [Video] - Scott Lynn: Solaris Product Management
        History of SPARC Performance Leadership
        • Power7+:
          10% improvement over 3 years
        • Intel x86:
          20%-50% improvement each generation
        • SPARC:
          Over 2x Performance Improvement each generation
        Solaris and SPARC Performance Leadership
        • 78% decrease in Price/Performance over M9000
        • 85% decrease in software costs on large Intel dual socket
        • 68% decrease in software costs/vm using Intel Solaris over RedHat and VMWare
        • 74% decrease in overall cost/vm using SPARC Solaris T5/2 over RedHat and VMWare
        SPARC CPU Architecture, Solaris OS, Virtualization, OpenStack - Complete.

        Friday, April 25, 2014

        Engineering for the Cloud: Solaris 11.2

        Webcast: Announcing Oracle Solaris 11.2
        Tuesday April 29, 2014
        1 PM (ET) / 10:00am (PT)

        1:00pm-1:20pmWelcome and Introduction
        Speaker: Mark Hurd, President, Oracle
        1:20pm-2:00pmAnnouncing Oracle Solaris 11.2
        Speakers: John Fowler, Executive Vice President, Systems, Oracle;
        Markus Flierl, Vice President, Solaris Engineering, Oracle
        2:00pm-2:30pmOracle Solaris: Real-world Perspectives
        Direct from the Experts: Oracle Solaris Deep Dives
        Oracle Solaris Lifecycle Management: Agile. Secure. Compliant
        Oracle Solaris 11.2 Virtualization and SDN: Integrated. Efficient. Secure.
        Oracle Solaris OpenStack
        Oracle Solaris: Optimized for Oracle Database, Oracle Java and Oracle Applications
        The Economics of Oracle Solaris: Lower Your Costs
        Speakers: Markus Flierl, Vice President, Solaris Engineering, Oracle; 
        Scott Lynn, Solaris Product Manager, Oracle; 
        Eric Saxe, Senior Manager, Software Development, Oracle

        Thursday, April 17, 2014

        Hardware: American Sell-Off with IBM and Google

        [IBM Logo, courtesy IBM]

        As the misguided U.S. economy continues to run up massive debt and continue massive trade deficit, the sell-off of U.S. High Technology assets continues to non-U.S. companies, fat with outsourcing cash. Lenovo, a Chinese company, continues their purchases in the United States of inventors of technologyu.
        [Chinese glorifying revolution, courtesy, The Telegraph]
        Chinese Lenovo Purchasing U.S. Hard Technology

        Chinese global company Lenovo has been purchasing their way into the U.S. market through many technologies essentially invented in the United States. IBM seems to be the most significant seller.

        [IBM PC, courtesy Wikipedia]
        • 2005-05-01 - PC Division acquired from IBM (PC's and ThinkPad Laptops)
          Chinese computer maker Lenovo has completed its $1.75 billion purchase of IBM’s personal computer division, creating the world’s third-largest PC maker, the company said Sunday. The deal — one of the biggest foreign acquisitions ever by a Chinese company
          [IBM Thinkpad, courtesy tecqcom]
        • 2006-04-10 - Lenovo makes break with the IBM brand (on PC's, not ThinkPad Laptops)
          Since Lenovo took over the IBM personal computer business on May 1, 2005, the company's advertising and marketing efforts have excluded IBM almost entirely. The four television spots that Lenovo ran during the Turin Winter Olympics, for example, never mentioned IBM at all. In fact, the only connection to the iconic brand is the IBM logo, which still adorns Lenovo's ThinkPad laptops.
        • 2013-01-07 - Lenovo to create ThinkPad-focused business unit to compete at the high end
          Lenovo is reorganizing its operations into two business groups... As part of the restructuring, it will create two new divisions, Lenovo Business Group and Think Business Group.The reorganization, which will be completed on April 1 [2013]
          [IBM Servers, courtesy Wikipedia]
        • 2014-01-23- Lenovo to buy IBM's x86 server business for $2.3bn (PC Servers)
          Lenovo and IBM announced on Thursday they have signed a definitive agreement that will see the Chinese hardware giant acquire the IBM's x86 server business for the tidy sum of $2.3bn, with approximately $2bn to be paid in cash and the balance in Lenovo stock.
          Adding to the PC business Lenovo acquired from IBM in 2005, Lenovo will take charge of IBM's System x, BladeCenter and Flex System blade servers and switches, x86-based Flex integrated systems, NeXtScale and iDataPlex servers and associated software, blade networking and maintenance operations.
          [Motorola Droid RAZR, courtesy Wikipedia]
        • 2014-01-29 - Motorola Cellphone Company acquired from Google (by Lenovo)
          Lenovo has signed a deal to buy the loss-making Motorola Mobility smartphone manufacturer for $2.91bn, but a switched-on Google is keeping the patents owned by the firm it gobbled two years ago for $12.5bn.
          "The acquisition of such an iconic brand, innovative product portfolio and incredibly talented global team will immediately make Lenovo a strong global competitor in smartphones," said Lenovo's CEO Yang Yuanqing. "We will immediately have the opportunity to become a strong global player in the fast-growing mobile space."
        • 2014-01-29 -  Lenovo splits into 4 groups after buying IBM's server business
          A few days after announcing its plan to buy IBM’s x86 server business, the Chinese company is dividing its operations into four business groups... enterprise products... developing a software ecosystem...PCs and mobile products. The changes go into effect on April 1 [2014]
        Clearly, Lenovo has a vision for the U.S. Market and is executing upon it. How unfortunate that American companies such as IBM and Google see little value or possibility in domestic hardware innovation, moving into the future.
        [HP Logo, courtesy eWeek]
        Impacts in the U.S. Market

        There is a great deal of uncertainty felt by partners and customers of IBM through such acquisitions. Previous attempts to leverage the IBM logo to help assure customers was performed, but with the latest purchase - competitors such as HP are seeing the a lot of noise.
        • 2014-04-11 - HP: Lenovo's buy of IBM x86 biz is bad, bad, bad...
          "Customers and partners are concerned. They are concerned about what the future will be for them – not only in the product but also in support and services," claimed the exec veep and GM of the Enterprise Group.
          HP has an internal migration programme to support customers with IBM servers as they decide to make the switch, he pointed out.
          But providing maintenance support is something that HP and other vendors already offer on third-party kit as standard.
        HP was tried to consolidate all of their computing systems under Intel Itanium, before trying to shut them all down. HP also tried to sell off their PC business, but relented, possibly due to customer pressure. How conservative customers who would only buy IBM will respond in the U.S. to their favorite manufacturer leaving the industry may not be a difficult conclusion to reach, especially from companies like HP.
        Concluding Thoughts:
        The massive technology bleed from the United States is partially due to commoditization, but also due to the migration to Cloud and Appliances and value provided by Intel computing vendors becoming less significant with Intel shipping entire motherboards bundling CPU, Floating Point, Memory Management Units, Ethernet, and most recently Video. Cell phones appear to be drastically simplifying, as well. Perhaps there was nothing of value left for Intel or cell phone based manufacturers to do? Can Apple buck the trend?

        Sunday, April 13, 2014

        Security: Heartbleed, Apple, MacOSX, iOS, Linux, and Android

        Nearly every computing device today is connected together via a network of some kind. These connections open up opportunities or vulnerabilities for exploitation by mafia, criminals, or government espionage via malware. While computers such as MacOSX are immune, along with their mobile devices based upon iOS iPhone and iPads... huge numbers of Linux and Android devices are at risk!


         This particular vulnerability can be leveraged by many sources in order to capture usernames and passwords, where those account credentials can be later used for nefarious purposes. Nefarious includes: command and control to attack commercial, financial, government, or even launch attacks against entire national electrical grids; stealing money; stealing compute resources. The defect is well documented.

        Apple and Android/Linux Vulnerabilities:

        There are many operating systems which are vulnerable to this defect, but for this article, we are only really concerned about the mobile market.
        While most of the buzz surrounding OpenSSL's Heartbleed vulnerability has focussed on websites and other servers, the SANS Institute reminds us that software running on PCs, tablets and more is just as potentially vulnerable.
        Williams said a dodgy server could easily send a message to vulnerable software on phones, laptops, PCs, home routers and other devices, and retrieve up to 64KB of highly sensitive data from the targeted system at a time. It's an attack that would probably yield handy amounts of data if deployed against users of public Wi-Fi hotspots, for example.
        While Google said in a blog post on April 9 that all versions of Android are immune to the flaw, it added that the “limited exception” was one version dubbed 4.1.1, which was released in 2012.
        Security researchers said that version of Android is still used in millions of smartphones and tablets, including popular models made by Samsung Electronics Co., HTC Corp. and other manufacturers. Google statistics show that 34 percent of Android devices use variations of the 4.1 software.

        The company said less than 10 percent of active devices are vulnerable. More than 900 million Android devices have been activated worldwide.
        After taking a few days to check its security, the fruity firm joined other companies in publicly announcing how worried or secure its customers should feel.
        “Apple takes security very seriously. IOS and OS X never incorporated the vulnerable software and key Web-based services were not affected,” an Apple spokesperson said.

        To give an adequate understanding regarding the number of mobile Android devices at risk, one could take the population of the United States, at roughly 317 Million people as a baseline. 90 million Android Linux based devices vulnerable, that is equivalent to nearly 28% of the population of the United States is at risk! This is no small number of mobile devices - there is a lot of patching that either needs to be done or mobile devices which should be destroyed. Ensure you check your android device!

        Thursday, April 10, 2014

        Window Manager Lineup

        [TWM History, courtesy Wikipedia]
        X Windows is a Client-Server based windowing system, where the client applications can run on foreign servers and the X-Windows Server provide resources to the client to run properly, such as Frame Buffer, Keyboard, and Mouse. The X Windows Client application may run on any Hardware or OS Platform, consuming the memory and CPU resources on the remote side, not bound by architecture or byte order to the X Server. This article discusses one such client, the Window Manager.

        [X Windows Architecture, Courtesy Wikipedia]

        An X Client may consume resources from a single X Server, such as a simple as a Clock Application as complicated as a Desktop Publishing Application. An X Client may consume resources from multiple X Servers for gaming, such as X Tank or X Battle. A special kind of X Client is called the Window Manager. The Window Manager acts as a client, may run as a local client, on the platform hosting the X Server, or it can run on a different platform hosting clients. The Window Manager provides controls to the desktop environment, which is ultimately virtualized through the X Protocol.

        [Open Look Virtual Window Manager, courtesy Layer 3 Networking]
        Window Manager Lineup
        Window Managers come in many different flavors. A recent article on windows managers hit the Layer 3 Networking Blog and offers a view into what may be appropriate for a vendor's virtual desktop environment.

        2013-03-17 --- A Memory Comparison of Light... Desktops – Part 1
        Fortunately, ...we have plenty of other choices, and we do like change. We have no need to keep using desktops we don’t like.I will describe some of choices in this article, and I’ll attempt to measure the RAM memory requirements. 

        2013-04-09 ---  A Memory Comparison of Light... Desktops – Part 2
        ...I’ve tried to investigate the RAM memory requirements for running some of the most common light window managers and desktop environments available... Prompted by several readers, I’ve decided to include also the big, well-known memory hogs that grab most of the... market, i.e. KDE, Unity and Gnome.

        2014-02-15 --- A Memory Comparison of Light Linux Desktops – Part 3
        Unused memory goes into a special buffering pool, where the kernel caches all recently used data. If a process attempts to read a file and the kernel already has the file cached, reading it is as fast as reading RAM. Filesystem-heavy task, such as compiling source code, processing video files, etc. benefit from as much free memory as possible in buffering pool. It is not uncommon today to see users with powerful systems running tiling window managers in only a few megabytes of memory.
        [Lineup of Window Managers by Resource Utilization, courtesy Layer 3 Networking]

        The author of these articles had placed a disproportionate weight upon Linux, which did not even exist when X Windows was released, so it should be noted that any OS can leverage these Window Managers. The layer of control the Window Manager offers to the virtual desktop user is what is most important for the environment where virtualization is occurring. What really matters is the application being virtualized, not the window manager, so the desktop features required to deliver the virtualized application to the end user is an economics question which this article series provides excellent data points for an architect to leverage in order to make the appropriate business decision.